www.pharmaprodia.com - PHARMAPRODIA
Now hiring Licensed Pharmacy Technicians. Call to inquire
  • 623-404-1000
  • Contact Us
  • Refill a prescription
  • Fax: 623-256-6491
  • M-F 0800-0500 PM Sat/Sun By appointment only

Whats Testosterone and its role in both mail and female

Testosterone falls into a class of hormones called "androgens." Androgens are commonly called "male" hormones, but also found in women. In fact, women have about 10% of the total testosterone in males. Testosterone is made in the ovaries and the adrenal glands. The ovaries produce less testosterone for most women, as they age. Only about 1% testosterone is free in blood with a greater majority of Testosterone bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHGB). This explains why blood testing of testosterone level should have a primary focus of free unbound testosterone level (not the total testosterone level). A lab test that focuses on total testosterone level will usually lead to inadequate (suboptimal dosing) or supratherapeutic dosing. (Hak et al., 2002) did a 2002 study whereby it was evident that low levels of endogenous androgens increase the risk of atherosclerosis in elderly men. 

Testosterone optimization has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory actions (Bianchi, 2019) where is has been illustrated that low plasma testosterone levels greatly correlated with cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, and increased mortality risk with a significant effect on the regulation of adipose tissue accumulation, plus a positive impact on glucose and lipid metabolism. Currently, anti–tumor necrosis factor treatments are considered the mainstay for the treatment for conditions such as moderate-to-severe inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Also, it has been identified that testosterone replacement or optimization in hypogonadal men who also have chronic inflammatory conditions can reduce inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, and IL-6. We therefore could safely suggest that testosterone can attenuate the inflammatory process and reduces the disease outcome by mechanisms that halt inflammatory cytokine expression and function (Traish, Bolanos, Nair, Saad, & Morgentaler, 2018). Androgens after all have the capability of controlling both expression and function of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and CRP (C-reactive protein) all biomarkers that identify signs of inflammation in blood laboratory tests. Thus, we conclude that Testosterone regulates several overlapping cellular and molecular pathways within the host of immune cells, and this contribute to attenuation of the inflammatory process. Through its preventative action on the formation of the adhesion molecules and vascular cell adhesive molecule (VCAM) and intercellular adhesive molecule, (ICAM-1 to ICAM-5), which is a prerequisite for the process of atherosclerosis to take place. Thus, testosterone replacement is an immensely powerful anti-inflammatory treatment that can help to prevent atherosclerosis. Testosterone replacement has been found a powerful treatment for the improvement of functional capacity and symptoms in men with moderate to severe heart failure (Malkin et al., 2006). 

Low testosterones have been associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type II diabetes, fibromyalgia, and coronary artery disease ((2012), 2013-2018, p. 328). (Boyanov, Boneva, & Christov, 2003) studied the effect of testosterone replacement in men having type 2 diabetes with, visceral obesity, with partial androgen deficiency. Testosterone decanoate was administered which eventually led to a reduction of Al C levels by 17.3% coupled with a decrease in visceral obesity and dramatic improvement of symptoms of androgen deficiency such as erectile dysfunction. Decreased testosterone effect on coronary artery disease has also been studied (Kaczmarek, Reczuch, Majda, Banasiak, & Ponikowski, 2003), who identified that postmenopausal women with decreased T levels were linked to coronary artery disease(CAD) independently of the other metabolic risk factors. Hormonal restoration tends to increase T level which may further support the beneficial role of HRT in postmenopausal women. Low-dose testosterone replacement in patients with anorexia nervosa 24 weeks was associated with less weight gain and decreased sustained depression, anxiety, and eating habits compared with placebo in women with AN. Low testosterone was a good predictor of cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in unadjusted models, but only the correlation between low testosterone and all-cause mortality remained after age change and co-morbidity (Adelborg et al., 2019). 

Testosterone helps avoid hot flashes in both men and women. Testosterone helps revive sexual desires in men and women alike. It increases the responsiveness of women to the clitoris stimulation and improves the immune responses, increases muscle strength, and decreases the amount of fat with an eventual improvement in the growth of muscles in both men and women. Testosterone increases bone growth and reduces bone loss in both men and women. It further increases the sense of well-being, improves scalp and body hair development, and significantly helps prevent erectile dysfunction in males. Testosterone helps in the reduction of both total cholesterol and LDL (bad cholesterol) and eventually protects the heart from cardiac accidents including heart attacks. There is an improved vigor and energy to men and women through the optimization of testosterone levels. Men and women alike having sexual sensitivity problems must consider checking their testosterone levels because it helps increase sexual satisfaction. Stress, memory enhancement and reduced prevalence of testosterone dementia is evidenced using Testosterone in both men and women. Evidence points to the fact that there is less breast cancer in women with sufficient levels of testosterone (Glaser & Dimitrakakis, 2015). 

Testosterone opens arteries in both men and women (Deenadayalu, White, Stallone, Gao, & Garcia, 2001) with noticeable dilation of coronary arteries around the heart in both men and women. Testosterone restorations help reduce men's blood pressure and improves the health of the prostate in men. Testosterone decreases the blood sugar levels and help decrease the risk of blood clots (Houghton et al., 2018). There is evidence that testosterone helps with anxiety (Tuck & Francis, 2009). Decreases bone deterioration (An age-related illness is arthritis) along with arthritic changes associated with age, and osteoporosis. Testosterone replacement in hypogonadal men increased muscle mass by increasing muscle protein synthesis (Brodsky, Balagopal, & Nair, 1996). Bone density declines in people with low testosterone. Low-testosterone men are more likely to have hip fractures than men with usual sex hormones. Elevation of norepinephrine in the brain is a crucial function of Testosterone which somewhat mimics the same effect as taking an antidepressant. The most effective and basic treatment for muscle mass loss involves the use of testosterone restoration therapy. People will retain the same safe levels of testosterone that they had when they were younger. Women should try to maintain a testosterone level of 80 pg / dL. As women's hormone production decreases in menopause, hormone replacement therapy has been shown to improve lean body mass, decrease abdominal fat in the short term, and prevent bone loss. (86 percent of the women say they experience a decrease in sexual interest with menopause). "No correlation between testosterone levels and PSA levels is found in his book, Syndrome of Testosterone, by Eugene Shippen, MD. And, as PSA is the most accurate laboratory predictor for prostate cancer risk, there is an encouraging lack of any connection to testosterone. "(Shippen & Fryer, 2007) What's more, a Japanese study found that people with the least prostate enlargement have higher rates of testosterone. Higher estrogen levels were found for men with an enlarged prostate. More than 90% of people with low testosterone would have a positive impact on the above symptoms if the testosterone in such patients is replenished.

There are studies showing that Testosterone at supra physiologic levels improves the efficacy estrogens when present in suboptimal quantities at increasing a woman’s sexual desire through an unknown mechanism especially as this is not evident at physiologic testosterone levels. (Cappelletti & Wallen, 2016) According to Eugene Shippen, MD, in his book “Testosterone syndrome”, he suggested we call sex hormones “health optimization hormones”. For example, lower testosterone and estrogen levels are causing a substantial loss of brain sharpness and are harmful to the normal functioning of the brain. This means that these hormones, whose function tends to be limited, as we refer to them as' sex hormones,' are also brain hormones. He further explains that testosterones and estrogen are also muscle hormones, bone hormones, skin hormones and energy hormones. Testosterone in women is a must, not only for its effect in restoring libido after menopause, but also on its ability to restore bone, Decreases bone deterioration, decreases excess body fat, its ability to elevates norepinephrine concentration in the brain, thus eliminating the need for an antidepressant in most cases; maintenance of memory, muscle mass, muscle strength and tone so that the skin doesn't prematurely sag. Testosterone also can enhance emotional wellbeing, self-confidence, and self-motivation (Rakel, 2012, p. 1267)