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Pregnenolone (The grandmother of all hormones)

Pregnenolones often called “The grandmother of all Hormones because it is a precursor to Progesterone and to DHEA which intern is a precursor to sex hormones Testosterone and estrogens. The conversion of cholesterol to Pregnenolone occurs in the mitochondria via the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP11A1. Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone that is synthesized in various steroidogenic tissues, in the brain, adrenal glands and in lymphocytes. In addition to serving as the precursor for other steroid hormones, pregnenolone exerts its own effect as an anti-inflammatory molecule to maintain immune homeostasis in various inflammatory conditions. Pregnenolone and its metabolic derivatives have been shown to have beneficial effects in the brain, including enhancing memory and learning, reversing depressive disorders, and modulating cognitive functions. 

A decreased level of pregnenolone has been observed in neuroinflammatory diseases, which emphasizes its role in neuroprotection and regeneration (Murugan, Jakka, Namani, Mujumdar, & Radhakrishnan, 2019). Today, we need cognitive enhancers for the treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, depression, schizophrenia that have the capability of helping with deficiencies in learning and memory (Y. S. Lee & Silva, 2009). Symptoms of schizophrenia such as cognitive deficiency are not effectively managed, and this eventually leads to the poor clinical outcome for such patients although several lines of studies have pointed to positive modulation of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) as a potential mechanism for cognitive enhancement in such psychiatric conditions (Bibb, Mayford, Tsien, & Alberini, 2010). Recent findings on the functional usefulness effects of Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) all suggest that PregS is a promising hormone as a cognitive enhancer especially as new PregS targets called TRPM3 and Kir2.3 channels have been discovered (C. C. Smith, Gibbs, & Farb, 2014). 

Low blood levels of Pregnenolone has been identified in a few patients with bipolar disorders, ADH and schizophrenia. And such patients usually respond to Pregnenolone supplementation positively. Pregnenolone is known to have a protective effect on the neurons in the brain, restoring adequate levels of Pregnenolone has been shown to improve memory and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Evidence greatly points to the fact that pregnenolone and other neurosteroids (all derived from Pregnenolone) can affect our learning and memory by their ability to enhance neurotransmission in the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex of the brain ((2012), 2013-2018, p. 352). 

Pregnenolone has been extremely useful in treating arthritis, muscle and joint pain, fatigue and low energy levels, decreased mobility and this is devoid of unwanted side effects as seen with standard cortisone treatments. Pregnenolone also has potential use in protecting the unwanted effects of elevated cortisol levels with a improve mood, decrease fatigue, enhance memory and improve a person's ability to cope with stress and ability to repair the myelin sheath ((2012), 2013-2018, p. 352). The oral dose for Pregnenolone ranges from 100 mg to 200 mg per day and should be taken in the morning. Pregnenolone transdermal creams can also be compounded by Compounding pharmacies. If DHEAS levels are suboptimal, Pregnenolone levels may also be suboptimal and therefore, it is a good idea to replace both especially if the numerous benefits of Pregnenolone are being considered.