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Ivermectin and its potential anti-tumour effects

Ivermectin has been demonstrated to have potent anticancer effects in a range of cancer cells, including suppression of proliferation and metastasis, as well as angiogenic activity. Ivermectin's modulation of numerous signaling pathways via PAK1 kinase may contribute to these effects. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that ivermectin promotes programmed cell death in cancer cells, including apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis. IVM has the ability to regulate the tumor microenvironment and promote the death of tumor cells, which has been found in recent studies of breast cancer. According to a survey conducted by Nambara, more than one million individuals with stomach cancer were diagnosed worldwide in the last year. The study demonstrated that IVM may dramatically decrease gastric cancer cell growth both in vivo and in vitro, and that this inhibitory impact is dependent on the expression of Yes-associated protein 1. (YAP1).

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fourth most common kind of cancer and the fourth major cause of death from cancer globally. Around 80% of instances of liver cancer are caused by hepatitis B and C virus (HBV/HCV) infection [42]. IVM has been shown to suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in spontaneous liver cancer Mob1b-/- mice via inhibiting YAP1 activity.

Cells from the renal tubular epithelium are the primary source of renal cell carcinoma, which is a lethal urinary system malignancy. An average of 2% per year is being added to the global morbidity and the clinical treatment outcome is not sufficient. Proliferation of five renal cell cancer cell lines may be greatly inhibited by IVM with no effect on the proliferation of normal kidney cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in this process.

A malignant tumor arising from the prostate epithelial cells is known as prostate cancer. Among males in Western nations, it is the second most frequent form of cancer. In prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC3, IVM may improve the anti-androgen medication enzalutamide's efficacy and reverse docetaxel resistance. However, IVM also restored breast cancer cells' responsiveness to tamoxifen, which is commonly used to treat triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). That IVM could be useful in endocrine treatment is suggested by this data. In addition, the prostate cancer cell line DU145 was discovered to have a good inhibitory impact on IVM.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and still lacks effective therapy. Ivermectin, an antiparasitic drug, has been shown to possess anti-inflammation, anti-virus, and antitumor properties. However, whether ivermectin affects CRC is still unclear.





references:

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2021.717529/full

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505114/